Gaj's Latin alphabet Serbo-Croatian : abeceda, latinica , or gajica  is the form of the Latin script used for writing Serbo-Croatian and all of its standard varieties : Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian , and Montenegrin. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language , and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. The alphabet consists of thirty upper and lower case letters:. The letters do not have names, and consonants are normally pronounced as such when spelling is necessary or followed by a short schwa , e.
All human Serbian latin alphabet are born free and equal in dignity and rights. The Latin alphabet, latinicawas not initially taught in schools in Serbia when it alphabey independent in the 19th century. Srpski jezik [The Serbian language] : 1—2. Copley Serbian text can be converted from Cyrillic to Latin and vice versa automatically by computer.
Chix lesbian bar st petersburg florida. Serbian at a glance
Serbian is currently written with both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets, which are both officially recognised, although Cyrillic Kopete webcam slow down made the official script of Serbia's Serbian latin alphabet in In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Chakavian Setbian Molise. I made Serbian latin alphabet photographs illustrating the simultaneous alphaet of both writing systems. Serbian latin alphabet, Macedonian uses the letter dzwhich is not part of the Serbo-Croatian phonemic inventory. The alphabet was officially adopted infour years after his death. Serbian alphabet redirects here. Serbo-Croatian Seebian Ekavian Ijekavian Ikavian. The regular upright shapes are generally standardized among languages and there are no officially recognized variations. Below you will be able to hear how the letters above are pronounced, just press the play button:. Northern Torlakian. Thus, in non-italic mode:. Which language?
In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro , where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population,  as well as in Croatia , North Macedonia , Romania , Hungary , Slovakia , and the Czech Republic.
- Gaj's Latin alphabet Serbo-Croatian : abeceda, latinica , or gajica  is the form of the Latin script used for writing Serbo-Croatian and all of its standard varieties : Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian , and Montenegrin.
- If you're trying to learn the Serbian Alphabet you will find some useful resources including a course about pronunciation, and sound of all letters
- It is one of the two alphabets used to write standard modern Serbian , Bosnian and Montenegrin , the other being Latin.
In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro , where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population,  as well as in Croatia , North Macedonia , Romania , Hungary , Slovakia , and the Czech Republic. Serbian is practically the only European standard language whose speakers are fully functionally digraphic ,  using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets.
Serbian was the official language of Montenegro until October when the new Constitution of Montenegro replaced the Constitution of Amid opposition from pro-Serbian parties,  the Montenegrin language was made the sole official language of the country, and Serbian was given the status of a recognised minority language along with Bosnian, Albanian , and Croatian.
In the Montenegrin census, Serbian is a rare example of synchronic digraphia , a situation where all literate members of a society have two interchangeable writing systems available to them. Media and publishers typically select one alphabet or the other.
In media, the public broadcaster, Radio Television of Serbia , predominantly uses the Cyrillic script whereas the privately run broadcasters, like RTV Pink , predominantly use the Latin script.
Newspapers can be found in both scripts. Outdoor signage, including road signs and commercial displays, predominantly uses the Latin alphabet. Larger signs, especially those put up by the government, will often feature both alphabets. Serbian is a highly inflected language , with grammatical morphology for nouns, pronouns and adjectives as well as verbs. Serbian nouns are classified into three declensional types, denoted largely by their nominative case endings as "-a" type, "-i" and "-e" type.
Into each of these declensional types may fall nouns of any of three genders : masculine, feminine or neuter. Each noun may be inflected to represent the noun's grammatical case , of which Serbian has seven:. Nouns are further inflected to represent the noun's number , singular or plural. Pronouns, when used, are inflected along the same case and number morphology as nouns. Serbian is a pro-drop language , meaning that pronouns may be omitted from a sentence when their meaning is easily inferred from the text.
In cases where pronouns may be dropped, they may also be used to add emphasis. For example:. Adjectives in Serbian may be placed before or after the noun they modify, but must agree in number, gender and case with the modified noun.
Serbian verbs are conjugated in four past forms— perfect , aorist , imperfect , and pluperfect —of which the last two have a very limited use imperfect is still used in some dialects, but the majority of native Serbian speakers consider it archaic , one future tense also known as the first future tense, as opposed to the second future tense or the future exact, which is considered a tense of the conditional mood by some contemporary linguists , and one present tense.
These are the tenses of the indicative mood. Apart from the indicative mood, there is also the imperative mood. Serbian has active and passive voice.
As for the non-finite verb forms, Serbian has one infinitive , two adjectival participles the active and the passive , and two adverbial participles the present and the past.
There are many loanwords from different languages, reflecting cultural interaction throughout history. Little secular medieval literature has been preserved, but what there is shows that it was in accord with its time; for example, the Serbian Alexandride , a book about Alexander the Great , and a translation of Tristan and Iseult into Serbian.
Although not belonging to the literature proper, the corpus of Serbian literacy in the 14th and 15th centuries contains numerous legal, commercial and administrative texts with marked presence of Serbian vernacular juxtaposed on the matrix of Serbian Church Slavonic.
By the beginning of the 14th century the Serbo-Croatian language, which was so rigorously proscribed by earlier local laws, becomes the dominant language of the Republic of Ragusa.
In the midth century, Serbia was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and for the next years there was no opportunity for the creation of secular written literature. Goethe and Jacob Grimm learned Serbian in order to read Serbian epic poetry in the original. By the end of the 18th century, the written literature had become estranged from the spoken language. In the second half of the 18th century, the new language appeared, called Slavonic-Serbian.
The dialects of Serbo-Croatian , regarded Serbian traditionally spoken by Serbs , include:. There are older, pre-standard dictionaries, such as the German—Serbian dictionary. Zagreb — From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Sorbian language. For other uses, see Serbian disambiguation. Language family. Writing system. Countries where Serbian is an official language. Countries where it is recognized as a minority language. See also: History of Serbo-Croatian.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. November Main article: Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. See also: Serbo-Croatian phonology and Serbo-Croatian grammar. Western South Slavic. Slovene Dialects Prekmurje Slovene Resian.
Serbian Slavonic-Serbian. Shtokavian Bunjevac Dubrovnik. Chakavian Burgenland Molise. Ekavian Ijekavian Ikavian. Eastern South Slavic. Dialects Western Southeastern.
Northern Torlakian. Transitional dialects. Modern Gaj's Latin a Serbian Cyrillic. Arebica Bosnian Cyrillic. Glagolitic Early Cyrillic. Main article: Serbo-Croatian grammar. See also: Loanwords in Serbian. Main article: Serbian literature. See also: Dialects of Serbo-Croatian. June The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement.
Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by out of United Nations member states , while 12 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition. Paul, ed. Ethnologue: Languages of the World 16th ed. Archived from the original on Retrieved Government of Czech Republic. Archived PDF from the original on Glottolog 3.
Or Just 'Our Language'? Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 6 May International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Archived from the original on 11 October Retrieved 27 April Lexical layers of identity: words, meaning, and culture in the Slavic languages.
New York: Cambridge University Press. Rotulus Universitas in Serbo-Croatian. Zagreb: Durieux. Archived PDF from the original on 1 June Retrieved 21 May Journal of Slavic Linguistics. Retrieved 9 October Popis Archived from the original on April 9, Retrieved December 17, Department of Immigration and Border Protection. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on July 12,
Literate Serbians are able to read and write their language in both scripts, and media organisations typically choose to use one or the other. There he met Jernej Kopitar , a linguist with interest in slavistics. Serbian Alphabet If you're trying to learn the Serbian Alphabet you will find some useful resources including a course about pronunciation, and sound of all letters Bulgarian Dialects Banat Torlakian Meshterski. People often wonder what alphabet is used in Serbia: is it Cyrillic or Latin? Also, it does not record consonant voicing assimilation: compare e.
Serbian latin alphabet. Serbian at a glance
Gaj's Latin alphabet - Wikipedia
Gaj's Latin alphabet Serbo-Croatian : abeceda, latinica , or gajica  is the form of the Latin script used for writing Serbo-Croatian and all of its standard varieties : Bosnian , Croatian , Serbian , and Montenegrin. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language , and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language.
The alphabet consists of thirty upper and lower case letters:. The letters do not have names, and consonants are normally pronounced as such when spelling is necessary or followed by a short schwa , e. These rules for pronunciation of individual letters are common as far as the 22 letters that match the ISO basic Latin alphabet are concerned. In , he published in Buda the book Kratka osnova horvatsko-slavenskog pravopisanja "Brief basics of the Croatian-Slavonic orthography" , which was the first common Croatian orthography book.
Croats had previously used the Latin script, but some of the specific sounds were not uniformly represented. In the s, there was a general confusion about the proper character encoding to use to write text in Latin Croatian on computers. The preferred character encoding for Croatian today is either the ISO , or the Unicode encoding UTF-8 with two bytes or 16 bits necessary to use the letters with diacritics. Since the early s, Gaj's alphabet was increasingly used for the Slovene language.
The breakthrough came in , when the Slovene conservative leader Janez Bleiweis started using Gaj's script in his journal Kmetijske in rokodelske novice "Agricultural and Artisan News" , which was read by a wide public in the countryside.
Slovene orthography is comparatively less phonetic than Serbo-Croatian [ citation needed ]. Also, it does not record consonant voicing assimilation: compare e. Romanization of Macedonian is done according to Gaj's Latin alphabet   but is slightly modified.
The rest of the letters of the alphabet are used to represent the equivalent Cyrillic letters. Also, Macedonian uses the letter dz , which is not part of the Serbo-Croatian phonemic inventory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Western South Slavic. Slovene Dialects Prekmurje Slovene Resian. Serbian Slavonic-Serbian. Shtokavian Bunjevac Dubrovnik.
Chakavian Burgenland Molise. Ekavian Ijekavian Ikavian. Eastern South Slavic. Dialects Western Southeastern. Northern Torlakian. Transitional dialects. Modern Gaj's Latin a Serbian Cyrillic. Arebica Bosnian Cyrillic. Glagolitic Early Cyrillic.
Main article: Romanization of Macedonian. Linguistics in Croatian. Faculty of Philosophy, University of Osijek. Retrieved Faculty of Philosophy, University of Pula. Archived from the original PDF on The Slavonic Languages. Retrieved 23 December Categories : Latin alphabets Croatian language Serbian language Serbo-Croatian language Slovene alphabet Writing systems introduced in the 19th century Bosnian language introductions.
Comparison of standard Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian. Bulgarian Dialects Banat Torlakian Meshterski. Croatian—Slovenian Kajkavian. Bulgarian—Macedonian Slavic dialects of Greece. This article contains special characters. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
Majuscule forms also called uppercase or capital letters. Minuscule forms also called lowercase or small letters. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gaj's Latin alphabet.