Dunn, Thomas J. Published on Oct 16, Volume 33 Issue 4 Janpp. Pratts bottom 46 Issue 4 Novpp. For instance, a group of English language learners intrrlanguage, over time, from accurate usage of the "-ing" present progressive morpheme, to incorrectly omitting it, and finally, back to correct usage.
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The term interlanguage can be used to refer both to the object of investigation, i.
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- Interlanguage is the type of language or linguistic system used by second- and foreign-language learners who are in the process of learning a target language.
An interlanguage is an idiolect that has been developed by a learner of a second language or L2 which preserves some features of their first language or L1 , and can also overgeneralize some L2 writing and speaking rules. These two characteristics of an interlanguage result in the system's unique linguistic organization.
An interlanguage is idiosyncratically based on the learners' experiences with the L2. The interlanguage rules are claimed to be shaped by several factors, including L1-transfer, previous learning strategies, strategies of L2 acquisition i. Interlanguage is based on the theory that there is a dormant psychological framework in the human brain that is activated when one attempts to learn a second language. Interlanguage theory is often credited to Larry Selinker , who coined the terms "interlanguage" and "fossilization.
Selinker noted that in a given situation, the utterances produced by a learner are different from those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning. This comparison suggests the existence of a separate linguistic system. This system can be observed when studying the utterances of the learner who attempts to produce meaning in their L2 speech; it is not seen when that same learner performs form-focused tasks, such as oral drills in a classroom.
To study the psychological processes involved one can compare the interlanguage utterances of the learner with two things:. It is possible to apply an interlanguage perspective to a learner's underlying knowledge of the target language sound system interlanguage phonology , grammar morphology and syntax , vocabulary lexicon , and language-use norms found among learners interlanguage pragmatics.
By describing the ways in which learner language conforms to universal linguistic norms, interlanguage research has contributed greatly to our understanding of linguistic universals in second-language acquisition. Before the interlanguage hypothesis rose to prominence, the principal theory of second-language L2 development was contrastive analysis. This theory assumed that learners' errors were caused by the difference between their L1 and L2.
This approach was deficit-focused, in the sense that speech errors were thought to arise randomly and should be corrected. Robert Lado held that the claims of contrastive analysis should be viewed as hypothetical unless and until they were based on systematic analyses of learner speech data. The idea that language learners' linguistic systems were different from both their L1 and L2 was developed independently at around the same time by several different researchers.
Interlanguage is claimed to be a language in its own right. Selinker noted that in a given situation the utterances produced by the learner are different from those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning. Interlanguage can be observed to be variable across different contexts.
A learner may produce a target-like variant e. Scholars from different traditions have taken opposing views on the importance of this phenomenon. On the other hand, those who approach it from a sociolinguistic or psycholinguistic orientation view variability as an inherent feature of the learner's interlanguage.
In these approaches, a learner's preference for one linguistic variant over another can depend on social contextual variables such as the status or role of the person the learner is speaking to. Variability in learner language distinguishes between "free variation", which has not been shown to be systematically related to accompanying linguistic or social features, and "systematic variation", which has. Free variation in the use of a language feature is usually taken as a sign that it has not been fully acquired.
The learner is still trying to figure out what rules govern the use of alternate forms. Systematic variation is brought about by changes in the linguistic, psychological, and social context. Linguistic factors are usually extremely local. But they will show higher accuracy when the word following the tensed word begins with a nonconsonant e. Social factors may include a change in register or the familiarity of interlocutors.
In accordance with communication accommodation theory , learners may adapt their speech to either converge with, or diverge from, their interlocutor's usage. For example, they may deliberately choose to address a non-target form like "me no" to an English teacher in order to assert identity with a non-mainstream ethnic group. The impact of alphabetic literacy level on an L2 learner's ability to pay attention to form is as yet unclear.
Affective factors also play an important role in systematic variation. For example, learners in a stressful situation such as a formal exam may produce fewer target-like forms than they would in a comfortable setting. This clearly interacts with social factors, and attitudes toward the interlocutor and topic also play important roles.
Individuals learning a second language may not always hear spoken L2 words as separate units. The blended words are called "prefabricated patterns" or "chunks". For example, if an English learner hears sentences beginning with "do you", they may associate it with being an indicator of a question but not as two separate words. To them, the word is "doyou". They may happen to say "What do you doing?
When learners experience significant restructuring in their L2 systems, they sometimes show a U-shaped learning pattern. For instance, a group of English language learners moved, over time, from accurate usage of the "-ing" present progressive morpheme, to incorrectly omitting it, and finally, back to correct usage.
As their knowledge of tense in English expanded, this disrupted their correct usage of the morpheme. They eventually returned to correct usage when they gained greater understanding of the tense rules in English. These data provide evidence that the learners were initially producing output based on rote memory of individual words containing the present progressive "-ing" morpheme.
Finally, they learned the rule for appropriate use of "-ing". The "chunking" method enables a learner to practice speaking their L2 before they correctly break the chunk up in to its component parts.
According to interlanguage theory, this seeming progression and regression of language learning is an important and positive manifestation of the learner's developing understanding of the grammar of the target language. It can occur even in motivated learners who are continuously exposed to their L2 or have adequate learning support. Fossilization occurs often in adult language learners.
It can also occur when a learner succeeds in conveying messages with their current L2 knowledge. The learner fossilizes the form instead of correcting it. Research on universal grammar UG has had a significant effect on second-language acquisition SLA theory. An example of a UG constraint is an " island constraint ," where the wh -phrase in a question has a finite number of possible positions.
Island constraints are based on the concept that there are certain syntactical domains within a sentence that act as phrase boundaries. It is theorized that the same constraints that act on a native UG are also often present in an interlanguage UG. The concept of interlanguage is closely related to other types of language, especially creoles and pidgins. Each of these languages has its own grammar and phonology.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Interlanguage disambiguation. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
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November Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: poorly written, etc. Please help improve this article if you can. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Interlanguage fossilization. Key Concepts in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. International Review of Applied Linguistics. In Berns, Margie ed. The concise encyclopedia of applied linguistics.
Oxford: Elsevier. Interlanguage pragmatics. New York: Oxford University Press. In Bayley, R; Lucas, C eds. Sociolinguistic Variation: Theory, methods, and applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In Eisenstein, Miriam R. The dynamic interlanguage: Empirical studies in second-language variation. New York: Plenum Press. Manchester: St Jerome Pub. Literacy and second language oracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. In Seliger, H; Long, M. Classroom oriented research in second language acquisition. Rowley MA : Newbury House. Fossilization in adult second language acquisition Online ed. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. New York: Routledge. Second-language acquisition. Outline Common misconceptions.
Data analytics refers to various tools and skills involving qualitative and quantitative methods, which employ this collected data and produce an outcome which is used to improve efficiency, productivity, reduce risk and rise business gain. Instead of a constant step up, language learners follow spurts of growth followed by plateaus of knowledge. Please provide your Email ID. Verifiable Certificates. Interlanguage is a great theory to keep educators grounded as to what goes on in the learning process. Let say you have 1gb customer purchase related data of past 1 year, now one has to find that what our customers next possible purchases, you will use data analytics for that.
Model interlanguage data analysis. Data Analysis Evaluates the Data Itself
Welcome to our site on Interlanguage. Rioliza Baquial-Molina, who had opened our minds in many ways and who had become a great part of our learnings. Second Language… Are you a user of it? Another question is: are you an expert with your second language? If yes, then you must also be an expert with your first language.
If no, then you better read the information that we would like to share. What is InterLanguage? Interlanguage is a language created by learners of a second language which is between the target language and the learner's first language L1.
An interlanguage is an emerging linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second language or L2 who has not become fully proficient yet but is only approximating the target language: preserving some features of their first language or L1 in speaking or writing the target language and creating innovations. The learner creates an interlanguage using different learning strategies such as language transfer, overgeneralisation and simplification.
Interlanguage is based on the theory that there is a "psychological structure latent in the brain" which is activated when one attempts to learn a second language. Larry Selinker proposed the theory of interlanguage in , noting that in a given situation the utterances produced by the learner are different from those native speakers would produce had they attempted to convey the same meaning.
This comparison reveals a separate linguistic system. This system can be observed when studying the utterances of the learners who attempt to produce a target language norm. To study the psychological processes involved one should compare the interlanguage of the learner with two things:. Utterances in the native language to convey the same message made by the learner.
Utterances in the target language to convey the same message made by the native speaker of that language. However taking a closer look, we have come up with these data:. In Cebuano, we do not have distinct 3 rd person pronouns or terms which specify and distinguish genders of who you are referring. Unlike English, it is so specific when it comes to Gender. Another observation is that Pronouns in Cebuano are inflected for person, number and case. The four cases are nominative, preposed genitive, postposed genitive, and oblique.
Moadto kami sa palengke. Moadto kita sa palengke. What is a noun phrase? To answer this question, a noun phrase is a phrase that has a noun as its head. Nasuko si CJ kanako. CJ is angry with me. Based on the structure alone, we can not really say that the two languages are closely related. Though the differences, certain similarities still exist as presented above.
Although the study was all about interlanguage of the Bisaya people in Davao City, still we connected the first language to the English language because every speaker of a native language undergo an interlanguage continuum or the way that the language learners go through from the first to the second language. Language learners can never be an expert on the second language unless they are expert with their first language.
Timothy Mason's site. The Languages of the Philippines. Wikipedia, Online Encyclopedia. Want to get in touch? Utterances in the native language to convey the same message made by the learner 2. Ergative postposed. Ergative preposed.